|1983 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1983rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 983rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 83rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1980s decade.
The year 1983 saw both the official beginning of the Internet and the first mobile cellular telephone call.
- January 1 – The migration of the ARPANET to TCP/IP is officially completed (this is considered to be the beginning of the true Internet).
- January 24 – Twenty-five members of the Red Brigades are sentenced to life imprisonment for the 1978 murder of Italian politician Aldo Moro.
- January 25
- High-ranking Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie is arrested in Bolivia.
- IRAS is launched from Vandenberg AFB, to conduct the world's first all-sky infrared survey from space.
- February 2 – Giovanni Vigliotto goes on trial on charges of polygamy involving 105 women.
- February 3 – Prime Minister of Australia Malcolm Fraser is granted a double dissolution of both houses of parliament, for elections on March 5, 1983. As Fraser is being granted the dissolution, Bill Hayden resigns as leader of the Australian Labor Party, and in the subsequent leadership spill Bob Hawke is elected as Hayden's successor unopposed.
- February 5–6 – The team of A. J. Foyt, Preston Henn, Bob Wollek and Claude Ballot-Léna win the 24 Hours of Daytona automobile race in a Porsche 935
- February 6 – Klaus Barbie is officially charged with war crimes.
- February 12 – 100 women protest in Lahore, Pakistan, against military dictator Zia-ul-Haq's proposed Law of Evidence. The women are tear-gassed, baton-charged and thrown into lock-up but are successful in repealing the law.
- February 16 – The Ash Wednesday bushfires in Victoria and South Australia claim the lives of 75 people, in one of Australia's worst bushfire disasters.
- February 18
- The Venezuelan bolívar is devalued and exchange controls are established in an event now referred to as Black Friday by many Venezuelans (the Bolívar had been the most stable and internationally accepted currency)[clarification needed].
- Nellie massacre: Over 2,000 people, mostly Bangladeshi Muslims, are massacred in Assam, India, during the Assam agitation.
- Wah Mee massacre: 13 people are killed in an attempted robbery in the Chinatown area of Seattle, United States.
- March 1 – The Balearic Islands and Madrid become Autonomous communities of Spain.
- March 5 – Australian federal election: The Labor Party led by Bob Hawke defeats the Liberal/National Coalition government led by Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser. Hawke would be sworn in on March 11. As soon as the results became clear, Fraser resigned from the Liberal leadership; he would be replaced by outgoing Minister for Industry and Commerce Andrew Peacock.
- March 9 – The 3D printer is invented by Chuck Hull.
- March 21 – Yamoussoukro officially becomes the Ivorian political capital after transfer from Abidjan.
- April 4 – The Space Shuttle Challenger is launched on its maiden voyage: STS-6.
- April 11 – Spain's Seve Ballesteros won the 47th PGA Masters Tournament
- April 18 – The 1983 United States embassy bombing in Beirut kills 63 people.
- April 22 – A reactor shut-down due to failure of fuel rods occurs at Kursk Nuclear Power Plant, Russia.
- May 6 – Stern magazine publishes the "Hitler Diaries" (which are later found to be forgeries).
- May 11 – Aberdeen F.C. beat Real Madrid 2–1 (after extra time) to win the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1983 and become only the third Scottish side to win a European trophy.
- May 17 – Lebanon, Israel, and the United States sign an agreement on Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon.
- May 20
- Two separate research groups led by Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier independently declare that a novel retrovirus may have been infecting people with HIV/AIDS, and publish their findings in the same issue of the journal Science.
- Church Street bombing: A car bombing in Pretoria, South Africa, kills 19 people. The bomb has been planted by members of Umkhonto we Sizwe, a military wing of the African National Congress.
- May 25 – Hamburger SV defeat Juventus 1-0 in the final of the European Cup.
- May 26 – The 7.8 Mw Sea of Japan earthquake shakes northern Honshu with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A destructive tsunami is generated that leaves about 100 people dead.
- May 27 – Benton fireworks disaster. An explosion at an unlicensed and illegal fireworks operation near Benton, Tennessee, kills eleven and injures one. The blast is heard within a radius of 20 miles (32 km).
- May 28 – The 9th G7 summit begins at Williamsburg, Virginia, United States.
- June 9 – Britain's Conservative government, led by Margaret Thatcher, is re-elected by a landslide majority.
- June 13 – Pioneer 10 passes the orbit of Neptune, becoming the first human-made object to leave the vicinity of the major planets of the Solar System.
- June 18 – Iranian teenager Mona Mahmudnizhad and nine other women are hanged because they are members of the Baháʼí Faith.
- June 18–19 – The team of Vern Schuppan, Al Holbert and Hurley Haywood wins the 24 Hours of Le Mans.
- June 22 - Emanuela Orlandi, a 15 years old Vatican girl, misteriously disappears in Rome while returning home from a music lesson. The disappearance of the girl led to many speculations which see the involving of international terrorism, italian organized crime and even a plot inside the Vatican to cover a sexual scandal inside the Holy See. Because of all these theories, the missing of Emanuela Orlandi would later become Italy's most famous unsolved mystery.
- June 25 – India wins the Cricket World Cup, defeating the West Indies by 43 runs.
- June 30 – A total loss of coolant occurs at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Argentina. It is classified as an "Accident With Local Consequences" – level 4 on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
- July 1
- A North Korean Ilyushin Il-62M jet, en route to Conakry Airport in Guinea, crashes into the Fouta Djall Mountains in Guinea-Bissau, killing all 23 people on board.
- A technical failure causes the release of iodine-131 from the Philippsburg Nuclear Power Plant, Germany.
- July 15
- Nintendo's Family Computer, also known as the Famicom, goes on sale in Japan.
- The Orly Airport attack in Paris leaves eight dead and 55 injured.
- July 16 – Sikorsky S-61 disaster: A helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, causing 20 fatalities.
- July 20 – The government of Poland announces the end of martial law and amnesty for political prisoners.
- July 21 – The lowest temperature on Earth is recorded in Vostok Station, Antarctica with −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F).
- July 22 – Australian Dick Smith completes his solo circumnavigation of the world in a helicopter.
- July 23
- 13 Sri Lanka Army soldiers are killed after a deadly ambush by the militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, starting the Sri Lankan Civil War which continued until 2009.
- Heavy rain and mudslides at western Shimane Prefecture, Japan, kill 117.
- July 24 – The Black July anti-Tamil riots begin in Sri Lanka, killing between 400 and 3,000. Black July is generally regarded as the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War.
- August 4 – Thomas Sankara becomes President of Upper Volta.
- August 18
- Hurricane Alicia hits the Texas coast, killing 22 and causing over US$3.8 billion (2005 dollars) in damage.
- Five people are killed and 18 others injured when a road train is deliberately driven into a motel at Ayers Rock in the Northern Territory of Australia (the driver, Douglas Edward Crabbe, is convicted in March 1984).
- August 21 – Benigno Aquino Jr., Philippines opposition leader, is assassinated in Manila just as he returns from exile.
- August 26 – Heavy rain triggers flooding at Bilbao, Spain, and surrounding areas, killing 44 people and causing millions in damages.
- August 31 - Hayley Strang is born in Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton in Somerset.
- September 1 – Cold War: Korean Air Lines Flight 007 is shot down by Soviet Union Air Force Su-15 Flagon pilot Major Gennadi Osipovich near Moneron Island when the commercial aircraft enters Soviet airspace. All 269 on board are killed, including U.S. Congressman Larry McDonald.
- September 6 – The Soviet Union admits to shooting down Korean Air Lines Flight 007, stating that the pilots did not know it was a civilian aircraft when it violated Soviet airspace.
- September 19 – Saint Kitts and Nevis becomes an independent state.
- September 23
- Gulf Air Flight 771 crashes in the United Arab Emirates after a bomb explodes in the baggage compartment, killing 117.
- Violence erupts in New Caledonia between native Kanaks and French expatriates. The French government withdraws the promise of independence.
- September 26
- 1983 Soviet nuclear false alarm incident: Soviet military officer Stanislav Petrov averts a worldwide nuclear war by correctly identifying a warning of attack by U.S. missiles as a false alarm.
- The Soyuz T-10-1 mission ends in a pad abort at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, when a pad fire occurs at the base of the Soyuz U rocket during the launch countdown. The escape tower system, attached to the top of the capsule containing the crew and Soyuz spacecraft, fires immediately, pulling the crew safe from the vehicle a few seconds before the rocket explodes, destroying the launch complex.
- The Australian yacht Australia II wins the America's Cup, the first successful challenge to the New York Yacht Club's 132-year defence of the sailing trophy.
- September 27 – The GNU Project is announced publicly on the net.unix-wizards and net.usoft newsgroups.
- October 2 – Neil Kinnock is elected leader of the British Labour Party.
- October 4 – British entrepreneur Richard Noble sets a new land speed record of 633.468 mph (1,019.468 km/h), driving Thrust2 at the Black Rock Desert, Nevada.
- October 9 – The Rangoon bombing kills South Korea's Foreign Minister, Lee Bum Suk, and 21 others. The perpetrators are believed to be North Koreans.
- October 12 – Japan's former Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka is found guilty of taking a $2 million bribe from Lockheed, and sentenced to 4 years in jail.
- October 13 – The world's first commercial mobile cellular telephone call is made, in Chicago, United States.
- October 19 – Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada, and 40 others are assassinated in a military coup.
- October 21 – At the 17th General Conference on Weights and Measures, the metre is defined in terms of the speed of light as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
- October 23 – Beirut barracks bombing: Simultaneous suicide truck-bombings destroy both the French Army and United States Marine Corps barracks in Beirut, killing 241 U.S. servicemen, 58 French paratroopers and 6 Lebanese civilians.
- October 25
- Invasion of Grenada by United States troops at the behest of Eugenia Charles of Dominica, a member of the Organization of American States.
- Word processor software Multi-Tool Word, soon to become Microsoft Word, is released in the United States. It is primarily the work of programmers Richard Brodie and Charles Simonyi. Free demonstration copies on disk are distributed with the November issue of PC World magazine.
- October 30 – Argentine general election: The first democratic elections in Argentina after seven years of military rule are held.
- November 2 – South Africa approves a new constitution granting limited political rights to Coloureds and Asians as part of a series of reforms to apartheid.
- November 3 – Commencement of the battle of Tripoli between Arafat loyalists and PLO dissidents.
- November 5 – Byford Dolphin rig diving bell accident: Off the coast of Norway, 5 divers are killed and 1 severely wounded in an explosive decompression accident.
- November 7
- Able Archer 83: Many Soviet officials misinterpret this NATO exercise as a nuclear first strike, causing the last nuclear scare of the Cold War.
- 1983 U.S. Senate bombing A bomb explodes in the United States Senate with the intent to kill Republican senators; no one is injured. The perpetrators are members of the May 19th Communist Organization.
- November 11 – Ronald Reagan becomes the first U.S. president to address the National Diet, Japan's national legislature.
- November 13 – The first United States cruise missiles arrive at RAF Greenham Common in the UK amid protests from peace campaigners.
- November 14 – The immunosuppressant cyclosporine is approved by the FDA, leading to a revolution in the field of transplantation.
- November 15 – The Turkish part of Cyprus declares independence.
- November 17 – The Zapatista Army of National Liberation is founded in Mexico.
- November 19 – An attempted hijacking of Aeroflot Flight 6833 in Soviet Georgia results in several dead and wounded.
- November 27 – Colombian Avianca Flight 011 crashes near Barajas Airport in Madrid, Spain, killing 181 of the 192 on board.
- December 4 – General elections are celebrated in Venezuela in which the opposition party, Democratic Action, wins a majority in both chambers of the Venezuelan Congress and the presidency for the 1984–1989 period under Jaime Lusinchi. Voter turn out is 87.3% and Lusinchi obtains 58.4% of the votes.
- December 5 – ICIMOD is established and inaugurated with its headquarters in Kathmandu, Nepal, and legitimised through an Act of Parliament in Nepal this same year.
- December 7 – Two Spanish passenger planes collide on the foggy runway at a Madrid airport, killing 90 people.
- December 9 – The Australian dollar is floated, by Federal treasurer Paul Keating. Under the old flexible peg system, the Reserve Bank bought and sold all Australian dollars and cleared the market at the end of the day. This initiative is taken by the government of Bob Hawke.
- December 10 – Military rule ends and democracy is restored in Argentina, with the beginning of Raúl Alfonsín's first term as President of Argentina.
- December 13 – Turgut Özal, of ANAP forms the new government of Turkey (45th government); beginning a new civilian regime.
- December 17
- The Alcalá 20 nightclub fire in Madrid, Spain, injuring 47 and killing 83 people.
- Harrods bombings: a Provisional IRA car bomb kills 6 people and injures 90 outside Harrods department store in London.
- December 19 – The Jules Rimet Trophy is stolen from the Brazilian Soccer Confederation building in Rio de Janeiro. As of 2022[update], the trophy has not been recovered.
- December 27 – Pope John Paul II visits Rebibbia prison to forgive his would-be assassin Mehmet Ali Ağca.
- December 31 – Two bombs explode in France: one on a Paris train kills 3 and injures 19; the other at Marseille station kills 2 and injures 34.
- Leopold Kohr, the people of Belau, Amory and Hunter Lovins/Rocky Mountain Institute and Manfred Max Neef/CEPAUR win the Right Livelihood Award.
- The meteorological 1982–83 El Niño event brings severe weather worldwide.
Births and deaths
- Physics – Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, William Alfred Fowler
- Chemistry – Henry Taube
- Medicine – Barbara McClintock
- Literature – William Golding
- Peace – Lech Wałęsa
- Economics – Gérard Debreu
- ^ "A Closer Look At The Controversy Over The Internet's Birthday! You Decide". circleid.com. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- ^ Parry, Robert (2001). The map library in the new millennium. Chicago; London: American Library Association Library Association Pub. p. 90. ISBN 9780838935187.
- ^ Alexander Cockburn; Jeffrey St Clair (1998). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs, and the Press. Verso. p. 184. ISBN 9781859841396.
- ^ "13 slain in Chinatown gambling club robbery; 2 suspects in custody". UPI. February 19, 1983. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
- ^ "You Can Now See the First Ever 3D Printer—Invented by Chuck Hull—In the National Inventors Hall of Fame". 3DPrint.com. June 10, 2015.
- ^ Blackburn, Peter (May 28, 1983). "New capital grows in rural Africa: PETER BLACKBURN reports on Yamoussoukro's dramatic promotion from an obscure village buried in the bush to the capital of the Ivory Coast". South China Morning Post. ProQuest 1553829422.
- ^ RC Gallo; PS Sarin; EP Gelmann; M Robert-Guroff; E Richardson; VS Kalyanaraman; D Mann; GD Sidhu; RE Stahl; S Zolla-Pazner; J Leibowitch; M Popovic (1983). "Isolation of human T-cell leukemia virus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science. 220 (4599): 865–867. Bibcode:1983Sci...220..865G. doi:10.1126/science.6601823. PMID 6601823.
- ^ Barre-Sinoussi, F.; Chermann, J.; Rey, F.; Nugeyre, M.; Chamaret, S.; Gruest, J.; Dauguet, C.; Axler-Blin, C.; Vézinet-Brun, F.; Rouzioux, C.; Rozenbaum, W.; Montagnier, L. (1983). "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science. 220 (4599): 868–871. Bibcode:1983Sci...220..868B. doi:10.1126/science.6189183. PMID 6189183. S2CID 390173.
- ^ "Champions League 1982/1983 » Final » Hamburger SV - Juventus 1:0". worldfootball.net. May 25, 1983.
- ^ "Fireworks suspect charged with deaths". ay 3news.google.com. The Spokesman-Review. May 30, 1983. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- ^ "1983: Thatcher wins landslide victory". June 9, 1983 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- ^ Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States in Force on . U.S. Government Printing Office. 2006. p. 277.
- ^ Aldrich, Robert (1993). The Crisis in New Caledonia in the 1980s. In: France and the South Pacific since 1940. Palgrave Macmillan, London. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-349-10830-5.
- ^ Howard, Geoffrey (1986). Automobile aerodynamics : theory and practice for road and track. London Osceola, Wis., USA: Osprey for Motorbooks International. p. 53. ISBN 9780850456653.
- ^ "Witness the First Commercial Cellular Call Being Made in 1983". April 17, 2013.
- ^ Allen, Roy A. (2001). "Chapter 12: Microsoft in the 1980s" (PDF). A History of the Personal Computer: the People and the Technology. Allan Publishing. pp. 12/25–12/26. ISBN 978-0-9689108-0-1. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
- ^ "Microsoft Office online, Getting to know you...again: The Ribbon". Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ "The history of branding, Microsoft history". Archived from the original on May 28, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ Pollack, Andrew (August 25, 1983). "Computerizing Magazines". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ Treaster, Joseph B. (November 4, 1983). "ARAFAT SAYS SYRIA AND LIBYA HAVE JOINED TRIPOLI BATTLE". The New York Times.
- ^ Frederick S. Calhoun (1998). Hunters and Howlers: Threats and Violence Against Federal Judicial Officials in the United States, 1789-1993. U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Marshals Service. p. 15.