United Nations Command

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United Nations Command
유엔군사령부
Active7 July 1950 – present
(73 years, 9 months)
Allegiance United Nations
EngagementsKorean War (1950–1953)
Websitewww.unc.mil
Commanders
Commander UNC/CFC/USFKGen. Paul J. LaCamera (US Army)
Deputy CommanderLt. Gen. Derek A. Macaulay (Canadian Army)
Notable
commanders
Insignia
Flag
Headquarters of the United Nations Command and ROK-US Combined Forces Command in 2009.

United Nations Command (UNC or UN Command)[1] is the multinational military force established to support the Republic of Korea (South Korea) during and after the Korean War. It was the first international unified command in history, and the first attempt at collective security pursuant to the Charter of the United Nations.[1]

The UNC was established on 7 July 1950 following the United Nations Security Council's recognition of North Korean aggression against South Korea. The motion passed because the Soviet Union, a close ally of North Korea and a member of the UN Security Council, was boycotting the UN at the time over its recognition of the Republic of China (Taiwan) rather than the People's Republic of China.[2] UN member states were called to provide assistance in repelling the North's invasion, with the UNC providing a cohesive command structure under which the disparate forces would operate.[3] During the course of the war, 22 nations contributed military or medical personnel to UN Command;[1] although the United States led the UNC and provided the bulk of its troops and funding, all participants formally fought under the auspices of the UN,[4] with the operation classified as a "UN-led police action".[5]

On 27 July 1953, United Nations Command, the Korean People's Army, and the Chinese People's Volunteers signed the Korean Armistice Agreement, ending open hostilities. The agreement established the Military Armistice Commission (MAC), consisting of representatives of the signatories, to supervise the implementation of the armistice terms, and the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC), composed of nations that did not participate in the conflict, to monitor the armistice's restrictions on the parties' reinforcing or rearming themselves.[Note 1][6] In 1975, the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 3390 (XXX), which called upon the parties to the Armistice Agreement to replace it with a peace agreement, and expressed the hope that UNC would be dissolved on 1 January 1976.[7] But the UNC continues to function after that.[8]

Since 1953, UNC's primary duties have been to maintain the armistice and facilitate diplomacy between North and South Korea.[9] Although "MAC" meetings have not occurred since 1994, UN Command representatives routinely engage members of the Korean People's Army in formal and informal meetings. The most recent formal negotiations on the terms of Armistice occurred between October and November 2018. Duty officers from both sides of the Joint Security Area (commonly known as the Truce Village of Panmunjom) conduct daily communications checks and have the ability to engage face-to-face when the situation demands.[10]

Origin and legal status[edit]

United Nations Command operates under the mandates of United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolutions 82, 83, 84, and 85. These passed while the Soviet Union was boycotting the UN for awarding China's seat in the Security Council to the Republic of China.[11] While the UN had some military authority through Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, early Cold War tensions meant that the forces envisaged in those articles had yet to become reality. Thus the UN had little practical ability to raise a military force in response to the North Korean invasion of the South. Consequently, the UNSC designated the United States as the executive agent for leading a "unified command" under the UN flag. As it was a designated body, the UN exercised little control over the combat forces. This represented the first attempt at collective security under the UN system.

When the warring parties signed the Korean Armistice Agreement on 27 July 1953, the commander delivered the Agreement to the UN. In August 1953, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution “noting with approval” the Armistice Agreement, a step that was critical for the UN to take the next step of organizing the 1954 Geneva Conference meant to negotiate a diplomatic peace between North and South Korea. The adoption of the Korean Armistice Agreement in the UN General Assembly underwrites UN Command's current role of maintaining and enforcing the Armistice Agreement.

The role of the United States as the executive agent for the unified command has led to questions over its continued validity. Most notably, in 1994, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali wrote in a letter to the North Korean Foreign Minister that:

the Security Council did not establish the unified command as a subsidiary organ under its control, but merely recommended the creation of such a command, specifying that it be under the authority of the United States. Therefore, the dissolution of the unified command does not fall within the responsibility of any United Nations organ but is a matter within the competence of the Government of the United States.[12]

The UN's official position is that the Korean War-era Security Council and General Assembly resolutions remain in force. This was evidenced in 2013 when North Korea announced unilateral abrogation of the Armistice Agreement: UN spokesman Martin Nesirky asserted that since the Armistice Agreement had been adopted by the General Assembly, no single party could dissolve it unilaterally. The UNC continues to serve as the signatory and party of the Armistice opposite the Korean People's Army.

In JENNINGS v. MARKLEY, WARDEN, a determination was made by the Court of Appeals Seventh Circuit that American soldiers of the UNC were still liable to the Uniform Code of Military Justice although they fought under the UN blue flag.[13]

Establishment in 1950[edit]

After troops of North Korea invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 82 calling on North Korea to cease hostilities and withdraw to the 38th parallel.[14]

Two days later, the UNSC adopted Resolution 83, recommending that members of the United Nations provide assistance to the Republic of Korea "to repel the armed attack and to restore international peace and security to the area".[15]

The first non-Korean and non-U.S. unit to see combat was the No. 77 Squadron of the Royal Australian Air Force, which began escort, patrol and ground attack sorties from Iwakuni Royal Australian Air Base, Japan on 2 July 1950. On 29 June 1950, New Zealand made preparations to dispatch two Loch class frigates, Tutira and Pukaki, to Korean waters;[16] on 3 July, the ships left Devonport Naval Base, Auckland and joined other Commonwealth forces at Sasebo, Japan on 2 August. For the duration of the war, at least two NZ vessels would be on station in the theater.

Resolution 84, adopted on 7 July 1950, recommended that members providing military forces and other assistance to South Korea "make such forces and other assistance available to a unified command under the United States of America".[17]

President Syngman Rhee of the Republic of Korea assigned operational command of ROK ground, sea, and air forces to General MacArthur as Commander-in-Chief UN Command (CINCUNC) on 15 July 1950:

In view of the common military effort of the United Nations on behalf of the Republic of Korea, in which all military forces, land, sea and air, of all the United Nations fighting in or near Korea have been placed under your operational command, and in which you have been designated Supreme Commander United Nations Forces, I am happy to assign to you command authority over all land, sea, and air forces of the Republic of Korea during the period of the continuation of the present state of hostilities, such command to be exercised either by you personally or by such military commander or commanders to whom you may delegate the exercise of this authority within Korea or in adjacent seas.[18]

On 29 August 1950, the British Commonwealth's 27th Infantry Brigade arrived at Busan to join UNC ground forces, which until then included only ROK and U.S. forces. The 27th Brigade moved into the Naktong River line west of Daegu.

Units from other countries of the UN followed: the Belgian United Nations Command, the 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade, the Colombian Battalion,[19] the Ethiopian Kagnew Battalion, the French Battalion, the Greek 15th Infantry Regiment, New Zealand's 16th Field Regiment and Royal New Zealand Artillery, the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea, the South African No. 2 Squadron SAAF, the Turkish Brigade, and forces from Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Additionally, Denmark, India, Iran, Norway and Sweden provided medical units; Italy provided a hospital, even though it was not a UN member at the time.

By 1 September 1950, less than two months before the formation of United Nations Command, these combined forces numbered 180,000, of which 92,000 were South Koreans, with most of the remainder being Americans, followed by the 1,600-man British 27th Infantry Brigade.

Rockoff writes that "President Truman responded quickly to the June invasion by authorizing the use of U.S. troops and ordering air strikes and a naval blockade. He did not, however, seek a declaration of war, or call for full mobilization, in part because such actions might have been misinterpreted by Russia and China. Instead, on July 19 he called for partial mobilization and asked Congress for an appropriation of $10 billion for the war."[20] Cohen writes that: "All of Truman's advisers saw the events in Korea as a test of American will to resist Soviet attempts to expand their power, and their system. The United States ordered warships to the Taiwan Strait to prevent Mao's forces from invading Taiwan and mopping up the remnants of Chiang Kai-shek's army there."[21]

As of 1 July 1957 the commander of the United Nations Command was "triple hatted" being given command the United States Forces Korea and Eighth United States Army in addition to the UN command. The first commander to be "triple hatted" in this way was General George Decker, who would later serve as the Chief of Staff of the United States Army.

Commander[edit]

No. Commander Term Service branch
Portrait Name Took office Left office Term length
1
Douglas MacArthur
MacArthur, DouglasGeneral of the Army
Douglas MacArthur
(1880–1964)
7 July 195011 April 1951278 days
U.S. Army
2
Matthew Ridgway
Ridgway, MatthewGeneral
Matthew Ridgway
(1895–1993)
11 April 195112 May 19521 year, 31 days
U.S. Army
3
Mark W. Clark
Clark, MarkGeneral
Mark W. Clark
(1896–1984)
12 May 19527 October 19531 year, 148 days
U.S. Army
4
John E. Hull
Hull, JohnGeneral
John E. Hull
(1895–1975)
7 October 19531 April 19551 year, 176 days
U.S. Army
5
Maxwell D. Taylor
Taylor, MaxwellGeneral
Maxwell D. Taylor
(1901–1987)
1 April 19555 June 195565 days
U.S. Army
6
Lyman Lemnitzer
Lemnitzer, LymanGeneral
Lyman Lemnitzer
(1899–1988)
5 June 19551 July 19572 years, 26 days
U.S. Army
7
George Decker
Decker, GeorgeGeneral
George Decker
(1902–1980)
1 July 195730 June 19591 year, 364 days
U.S. Army
8
Carter B. Magruder
Magruder, Carter B.General
Carter B. Magruder
(1900–1988)
1 July 195930 June 19611 year, 364 days
U.S. Army
9
Guy S. Meloy
Meloy, Guy S.General
Guy S. Meloy
(1903–1968)
1 July 196131 July 19632 years, 30 days
U.S. Army
10
Hamilton H. Howze
Howze, Hamilton H.General
Hamilton H. Howze
(1908–1998)
1 August 196315 June 19651 year, 318 days
U.S. Army
11
Dwight E. Beach
Beach, Dwight E.General
Dwight E. Beach
(1908–2000)
16 June 196531 August 19661 year, 76 days
U.S. Army
12
Charles H. Bonesteel III
Bonesteel, Charles H. IIIGeneral
Charles H. Bonesteel III
(1909–1977)
1 September 196630 September 19693 years, 29 days
U.S. Army
13
John H. Michaelis
Michaelis, John H.General
John H. Michaelis
(1912–1985)
1 October 196931 August 19722 years, 335 days
U.S. Army
14
Donald V. Bennett
Bennett, Donald V.General
Donald V. Bennett
(1915–2005)
1 September 197231 July 1973333 days
U.S. Army
15
Richard G. Stilwell
Stilwell, Richard G.General
Richard G. Stilwell
(1917–1991)
1 August 19738 October 19763 years, 68 days
U.S. Army
16
John W. Vessey Jr.
Vessey, John W. Jr.General
John W. Vessey Jr.
(1922–2016)
8 October 197610 July 19792 years, 275 days
U.S. Army
17
John A. Wickham Jr.
Wickham, John A. Jr.General
John A. Wickham Jr.
(born 1928)
10 July 19794 June 19822 years, 329 days
U.S. Army
18
Robert W. Sennewald
Sennewald, Robert W.General
Robert W. Sennewald
(1929–2023)
4 June 19821 June 19841 year, 363 days
U.S. Army
19
William J. Livsey
Livsey, William J.General
William J. Livsey
(1931–2016)
1 June 198425 June 19873 years, 24 days
U.S. Army
20
Louis C. Menetrey Jr.
Menetrey, Louis C. Jr.General
Louis C. Menetrey Jr.
(1929–2009)
25 June 198726 June 19903 years, 1 day
U.S. Army
21
Robert W. RisCassi
RisCassi, Robert W.General
Robert W. RisCassi
(born 1936)
26 June 199015 June 19932 years, 354 days
U.S. Army
22
Gary E. Luck
Luck, Gary E.General
Gary E. Luck
(born 1937)
15 June 19939 July 19963 years, 24 days
U.S. Army
23
John H. Tilelli Jr.
Tilelli, John H. Jr.General
John H. Tilelli Jr.
(born 1941)
9 July 19969 December 19993 years, 153 days
U.S. Army
24
Thomas A. Schwartz
Schwartz, Thomas A.General
Thomas A. Schwartz
(born 1945)
9 December 19991 May 20022 years, 143 days
U.S. Army
25
Leon J. LaPorte
LaPorte, Leon J.General
Leon J. LaPorte
(born 1946)
1 May 20023 February 20063 years, 278 days
U.S. Army
26
B.B. Bell
Bell, B.B.General
B.B. Bell
(born 1947)
3 February 20063 June 20082 years, 121 days
U.S. Army
27
Walter L. Sharp
Sharp, Walter L.General
Walter L. Sharp
(born 1952)
3 June 200814 July 20113 years, 41 days
U.S. Army
28
James D. Thurman
Thurman, James D.General
James D. Thurman
(born 1953)
14 July 201112 October 20132 years, 80 days
U.S. Army
29
Curtis M. Scaparrotti
Scaparrotti, Curtis M.General
Curtis M. Scaparrotti
(born 1956)
2 October 201330 April 20162 years, 211 days
U.S. Army
30
Vincent K. Brooks
Brooks, Vincent K.General
Vincent K. Brooks
(born 1958)
30 April 20168 November 20182 years, 192 days
U.S. Army
31
Robert B. Abrams
Abrams, Robert B.General
Robert B. Abrams
(born 1960)
8 November 20182 July 20212 years, 236 days
U.S. Army
32
Paul LaCamera
LaCamera, Paul J.General
Paul LaCamera
(born 1963)
2 July 2021Incumbent2 years, 285 days
U.S. Army

Deputy Commander[edit]

No. Deputy Commander Term Service branch
Portrait Name Took office Left office Term length
1
John B. Coulter
Lieutenant General
John B. Coulter
(1891–1983)
7 July 19501952
U.S. Army
2
William Kelly Harrison Jr.
Lieutenant General
William Kelly Harrison Jr.
(1895–1987)
19521954
U.S. Army
3
Bruce C. Clarke
Lieutenant General
Bruce C. Clarke
(1901–1988)
19541954
U.S. Army
4
Claude Birkett Ferenbaugh
Lieutenant General
Claude Birkett Ferenbaugh
(1899–1975)
10 December 195427 June 1955
U.S. Army
5
John Howell Collier
Lieutenant General
John Howell Collier
(1898–1980)
27 June 1955September 1955
U.S. Army
6
Charles D. Palmer
Lieutenant General
Charles D. Palmer
(1902–1999)
September 19551958
U.S. Army
7
Emerson LeRoy Cummings
Lieutenant General
Emerson LeRoy Cummings
(1902–1986)
December 1958January 1961
U.S. Army
8
Andrew T. McNamara
Lieutenant General
Andrew T. McNamara
(1905–2002)
January 19611 October 1961
U.S. Army
9
Samuel L. Myers
Lieutenant General
Samuel L. Myers
(1905–1987)
1 October 196131 March 1963
U.S. Army
10
Charles W. G. Rich
Lieutenant General
Charles W. G. Rich
(1909–1993)
19641966
U.S. Army
11
Vernon P. Mock
Lieutenant General
Vernon P. Mock
(1912–1983)
1966February 1969
U.S. Army
12
John H. Michaelis
Michaelis, John H.Lieutenant General
John H. Michaelis
(1912–1985)
February 19691 October 1969
U.S. Army
13
John A. Heintges
Lieutenant General
John A. Heintges
(1912–1994)
196922 May 1970
U.S. Army
14
Patrick F. Cassidy
Lieutenant General
Patrick F. Cassidy
(1915–1990)
June 197014 September 1971
U.S. Army
15
William R. Peers
Lieutenant General
William R. Peers
(1914–1984)
14 September 19711973
U.S. Army
16
Richard T. Knowles
Lieutenant General
Richard T. Knowles
(1916–2013)
1973July 1974
U.S. Army
17
Edward M. Flanagan, Jr.
Lieutenant General
Edward M. Flanagan, Jr.
(1921–2019)
July 1974May 1975
U.S. Army
18
John J. Burns
Lieutenant General
John J. Burns
(1924–2000)
August 1975June 1977
U.S. Air Force
19
Charles A. Gabriel
Lieutenant General
Charles A. Gabriel
(1928–2003)
June 19771 April 1979
U.S. Air Force
20
Evan W. Rosencrans
Lieutenant General
Evan W. Rosencrans
(1926–2007)
1 April 19791 May 19812 years, 30 days
U.S. Air Force
21
Winfield W. Scott Jr.
Lieutenant General
Winfield W. Scott Jr.
(1927–2022)
1 May 1981May 1983
U.S. Air Force
22
John L. Pickitt
Lieutenant General
John L. Pickitt
(1933–2020)
May 198320 April 1985
U.S. Air Force
23
Jack I. Gregory
Lieutenant General
Jack I. Gregory
(born 1931)
20 April 19859 December 19861 year, 233 days
U.S. Air Force
24
Craven C. Rogers Jr.
Lieutenant General
Craven C. Rogers Jr.
(1934–2016)
9 December 198631 October 19881 year, 327 days
U.S. Air Force
25
Thomas A. Baker
Lieutenant General
Thomas A. Baker
(born 1935)
31 October 19887 July 19901 year, 249 days
U.S. Air Force
26
Ronald Fogleman
Lieutenant General
Ronald Fogleman
(born 1942)
7 July 199017 August 19922 years, 41 days
U.S. Air Force
27
Howell M. Estes III
Lieutenant General
Howell M. Estes III
(born 1941)
17 August 199230 September 19942 years, 44 days
U.S. Air Force
28
Ronald W. Iverson
Lieutenant General
Ronald W. Iverson
30 September 19947 April 19972 years, 189 days
U.S. Air Force
29
Joseph E. Hurd
Lieutenant General
Joseph E. Hurd
7 April 199714 September 19992 years, 160 days
U.S. Air Force
30
Charles R. Heflebower
Lieutenant General
Charles R. Heflebower
14 September 199919 November 20012 years, 66 days
U.S. Air Force
31
Lance L. Smith
Lieutenant General
Lance L. Smith
(born 1946)
19 November 200119 November 20032 years, 0 days
U.S. Air Force
32
Garry R. Trexler
Lieutenant General
Garry R. Trexler
(born 1947)
19 November 20036 November 20062 years, 352 days
U.S. Air Force
33
Stephen G. Wood
Lieutenant General
Stephen G. Wood
(born 1949)
6 November 200624 November 20082 years, 18 days
U.S. Air Force
34
Jeffrey A. Remington
Lieutenant General
Jeffrey A. Remington
(born 1955)
24 November 20086 January 20123 years, 43 days
U.S. Air Force
35
Jan-Marc Jouas
Lieutenant General
Jan-Marc Jouas
6 January 201219 December 20142 years, 347 days
U.S. Air Force
36
Terrence J. O'Shaughnessy
O'Shaughnessy, TerrenceLieutenant General
Terrence J. O'Shaughnessy
(born 1962)
19 December 20148 July 20161 year, 202 days
U.S. Air Force
37
Thomas W. Bergeson
Bergeson, ThomasLieutenant General
Thomas W. Bergeson
(born 1962)
8 July 201630 July 20182 years, 22 days
U.S. Air Force
38
Wayne Eyre
Eyre, WayneLieutenant-general
Wayne Eyre
(born 1968)
30 July 201826 July 2019361 days
Canadian Army
39
Stuart Mayer
Mayer, StuartVice admiral
Stuart Mayer
(born 1964)
26 July 201915 December 20212 years, 142 days
Royal Australian Navy
40
Andrew Harrison
Harrison, AndrewLieutenant General
Andrew Harrison
(born 1967)
15 December 2021[22]14 December 20231 year, 364 days
British Army
41
Derek A. Macaulay
Macaulay, DerekLieutenant-general
Derek A. Macaulay
14 December 2023[23]Incumbent120 days
Canadian Army

Current membership[edit]

Contributing forces: 1950–1953[edit]

During the three years of the Korean War, the following nations were members of the UNC.[27] By 27 July 1953, the day the Armistice Agreement was signed, UNC had reached a peak strength of 932,964:

During the course of the war, UNC was led by Douglas MacArthur, Matthew B. Ridgway, and Mark Wayne Clark. After the armistice was signed, John E. Hull was named UNC commander to carry out the ceasefire (including the voluntary repatriation of prisoners of war).[28]

Post Korean War (1953–present)[edit]

Following the signing of the Armistice Agreement, UNC remained in Korea to fulfill the functions of providing security and stability on the Peninsula, as well as supporting UN efforts to rebuild the war-torn Republic of Korea. Much of the fifties was marked by continuous negotiations in Military Armistice Commission meetings while the international community worked to bolster South Korea's economy and infrastructure. During this period, North Korea maintained economic and military superiority over its southern neighbor owing to Chinese and Soviet support.

The sixties proved a tenuous decade on the Korean Peninsula, punctuated by a period of hostilities between 1966 and 1969 that saw a heightened level of skirmishes in the DMZ as well as major incidents including North Korea's attempted assassination of South Korean leader Park Chung-hee and seizure of the USS Pueblo.

The seventies saw a brief period of rapprochement that later contributed to structural changes to UNC. In 1972, the North and South Korean governments signed a Joint Communique calling for more peaceful ties between the two Koreas. Concurrently, consecutive U.S. administrations (Nixon, Ford, and Carter) sought to decrease the South Korean reliance upon U.S. forces for maintaining deterrent capabilities on the Korean Peninsula. On 7 November 1978, a combined headquarters, the Republic of Korea – United States Combined Forces Command (CFC), was created, and the South Korean military units with front-line missions were transferred from the UN Command to the CFC's operational control. The commander-in-chief of the CFC, a United States military officer, answered ultimately to the national command authorities of the United States and that of South Korea.

From 1978, UNC maintained its primary functions of maintaining and enforcing the Korean Armistice Agreement, facilitating diplomacy that could support a lasting peace on the Peninsula, and providing a command that could facilitate multinational contributions should the armistice fail. UNC decreased in size, and over time, many of the billets assigned to UNC became multi-hatted with U.S. Forces Korea and Combined Forces Command.

The 1990s again saw notable change in UNC. In October 1991, UNC transferred responsibility of all DMZ sectors except for the Joint Security Area to the ROK military. In 1992, UNC appointed a South Korean General officer to serve as the Senior Member to the Military Armistice Commission. This led to the Korean People's Army and Chinese People's Volunteers boycotting MAC meetings. The collapse of the Soviet Union also led North Korea to question the alignment of their choices for the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission. They no longer recognized Czech or Slovak representatives of Czechoslovakia when the nation split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In 1994, North Korea expelled the Polish delegation and also dismissed the Chinese People's Volunteers from the Panmunjom mission. Owing in part being protest over China's warming ties with South Korea.

Since 1998, UNC has seen a gradual increase of permanent international staff within the command. In between 1998 and 2003, several of the original contributors to the Korean War began deploying personnel to Korea to support UNC's armistice maintenance functions. This internationalization has continued over the next decades. In May 2018,[29] Canadian Lt. General Wayne Eyre became the first non-American to serve as deputy commander of the UNC.[29][30][31][32] Succeeding him was Australian Vice Admiral Stuart Mayer, and the Lieutenant General Andrew Harrison of the British Army, continuing the trend of non-American leadership in UNC.

UNC–Rear[edit]

United Nations Command–Rear is located at Yokota Air Base, Japan and is commanded by a Royal Australian Air Force group captain with a deputy commander from the Canadian Forces. Its task is to maintain the SOFA that permits the UNC to retain a logistics rear and staging link on Japanese soil.[33]

Future of the Joint Security Area[edit]

To further the September 2018 inter-Korean Comprehensive Military Agreement, UN Command, Republic of Korea Armed Forces, and North Korean People's Army officials met in a series of negotiations to deliberate the demilitarization of the Joint Security Area.[34] The first two meetings in October led to Demining activities within the JSA, de-arming of personnel, and sealing off of Guard Posts.[35] On 6 November 2018, UNC conducted a third round of negotiations with the South Korean military and North Korean People's Army on "Rules of Interaction" which would underwrite a Joint Security Area where both sides of the Military Demarcation Line—the de facto border—would be open to personnel. For undisclosed reasons, the North Korean side refused to meet to finalize these rules and the next step for realizing a demilitarized Joint Security Area. Regardless of past compromises, North Korea began to arm their soldiers in the JSA with pistols around the end of the November, 2023.[36]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The North Korean-Chinese MAC was replaced by the "Panmunjom Mission" under exclusive North Korean administration.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "United Nations Command > History > 1950–1953: Korean War (Active Conflict)". www.unc.mil. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  2. ^ "United Nations Security Council - History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  3. ^ "United Nations Command > History > 1950–1953: Korean War (Active Conflict)". www.unc.mil. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  4. ^ "United Nations Command > Resources > FAQs". www.unc.mil. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  5. ^ "The United Nations in Korea | Harry S. Truman". www.trumanlibrary.gov. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  6. ^ "State Department message to DPRK". Archived from the original on 31 August 2000. Retrieved 29 November 2006.
  7. ^ "Question of Korea". United Nations Digital Library. 1976. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  8. ^ Salmon, Andrew (8 May 2019). "In South Korea, a UN Command that isn't". Asia Times. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  9. ^ "Let the UN Command Remain a Tool for Korean Peace". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  10. ^ "Joint Security Area / Panmunjom". Retrieved 9 April 2006.
  11. ^ "United Nations Security Council – History".
  12. ^ Pak Chol Gu (7 May 1997). "Replacement of the Korean Armistice Agreement: Prerequisite to a lasting peace in the Korean Peninsula". Nautilus Institute. Retrieved 2 May 2013. UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali noted in his letter to the Foreign Minister of the DPRK, dated 24 June 1994: I do not believe, though, that any principal organ of the United Nations, including the Secretary General, can be the proper instance to decide on the continued existence or the dissolution of the United Nations Command. However, allow me to recall that the Security Council, in operative paragraph 3 of resolution 84 (1950) of 7 July 1950, limited itself to recommending that all members providing military forces and other assistance to the Republic of Korea 'make such forces and other assistance available to a unified command under the United States of America'. It follows, accordingly, that the Security Council did not establish the unified command as a subsidiary organ under its control, but merely recommended the creation of such a command, specifying that it be under the authority of the United States. Therefore, the dissolution of the unified command does not fall within the responsibility of any United Nations organ but is a matter within the competence of the Government of the United States.
  13. ^ "Jennings v . Markley, Warden". International Law Reports. 32: 367–368. 1966. doi:10.1017/CBO9781316151594.110. S2CID 248997335.
  14. ^ "United Nations Security Council Resolution 82" (PDF). 25 June 1950. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  15. ^ "United Nations Security Council Resolution 83" (PDF). 27 June 1950. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  16. ^ Korean ScholarshipsNavy Today, Defence Public Relations Unit, Issue 133, 8 June, Page 14-15
  17. ^ "United Nations Security Council Resolution 84" (PDF). 7 July 1950. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Grey, Jeffrey. The Commonwealth Armies and the Korean War: An Alliance Study. Manchester University Press, 1990.

External links[edit]